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Support Information Model

Issuer: openEHR Specification Program

Release: Release-1.0.3

Status: STABLE

Revision: [latest_issue]

Date: [latest_issue_date]

Keywords: EHR, openehr, identifiers, types

openEHR components
© 2003 - 2015 The openEHR Foundation

The openEHR Foundation is an independent, non-profit community organisation, facilitating the sharing of health records by consumers and clinicians via open-source, standards-based implementations.

Licence

image Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/

Support

Issues: https://openehr.atlassian.net/browse/SPECPR/
Web: http://www.openehr.org/

Amendment Record

Issue Details Raiser Completed

R E L E A S E     1.0.3

1.7.0

SPECRM-29: Change DV_COUNT.magnitude to integer64 type.

R Chen

15 Aug 2015

1.7.0

SPECRM-31: Upgrade INTERNET_ID grammar to allow underscrores; clean up EBNF.

T Beale

10 Oct 2015

R E L E A S E     1.0.2

1.6.1

SPEC-256: Correct extension_validity in UID_BASED_ID class.

R Chen

20 Oct 2008

SPEC-260: Correct the regex published for the ARCHETYPE_ID type. Improved explanatory text for composite identifiers, including statement on case-sensitivity. Warning on .v1draft non-conformance included.

P Gummer
J Arnett
E Browne

R E L E A S E     1.0.1

1.6.0

CR-000215: Merge DV_PARTIAL_XX date/time classes and move ISO 8601 semantics to Support IM.

T Beale

08 Apr 2007

CR-000209: Minor changes to correctly define AUTHORED_RESOURCE.current_revision. Add minimal definition for List<T> class.

Y S Lim

CR-000200: Correct Release 1.0 typographical errors. Move INTERVAL class definition to correct section. Add two invariants. Improved explanation of identifiers.

S Heard
G Grieve
D Lloyd

CR-000202: Correct minor errors in VERSION.preceding_version_id. Added is_first function and invariant to VERSION_TREE_ID class. Added invariants for 1-based numbering

S Heard,
H Frankel
Y S Lim

CR-000203: Release 1.0 explanatory text improvements.

A Patterson
G Grieve

CR-000204: Add generic id subtype of OBJECT_ID.

H Frankel

CR-000216: Allow mixture of W, D etc in ISO8601 Duration (deviation from standard).

S Heard

CR-000219: Use constants instead of literals to refer to terminology in RM.

R Chen

CR-000220: Tighten semantics of HISTORY.period and EVENT.time.

A Patterson

CR-000144: Add new Ratio type: DV_PROPORTION. Add Real.floor.

S Heard

CR-000221. Add normal_status to DV_ORDERED. Adjusted invariants.

H Frankel
T Beale

CR-000228: Add minor deviations from ISO 8601 to assumed date/time types.

H Frankel

CR-000229: Minor date/time corrections. Allow 2-digit timezones.

H Frankel

CR-000236: Change use of Character to Octet in DV_MULTIMEDIA.

G Grieve

CR-000239: Add common parent type of OBJECT_VERSION_ID and HIER_OBJECT_ID.

H Frankel

CR-000243: Add template_id to ARCHETYPED class.

T Beale

CR-000246: Correct openEHR terminology rubrics.

B Verhees
M Forss

R E L E A S E     1.0

1.5

CR-000162. Allow party identifiers when no demographic data. Relax invariant on PARTY_REF.

S Heard
H Frankel

06 Feb 2006

CR-000184. Separate out terminology from Support IM.

T Beale

CR-000188: Add generating_type function to ANY for use in invariants.

T Beale

CR-000161. Support distributed versioning. Move OBJECT_ID.version to subtypes. Add OBJECT_VERSION_ID, VERSION_TREE_ID and LOCATABLE_REF types.

T Beale
H Frankel

R E L E A S E     0.96

1.3

CR-000135: Minor corrections to rm.support.terminology package.
CR-000126. Correct details of partial date/time classes.
CR-000112. Add DV_PARTIAL_DATE_TIME class

D Lloyd

25 Jun 2005

R E L E A S E     0.95

1.2.1

CR-000129. Fix errors in UML & specs of Identification package. Adjust invariants & postcondition of OBJECT_ID, HIER_OBJECT_ID, ARCHETYPE_ID and TERMINOLOGY_ID. Improve text to do with assumed abstract types Any and Ordered_numeric.

D Lloyd

25 Feb 2005

1.2

CR-000128. Update Support assumed types to ISO 11404:2003.

T Beale

10 Feb 2005

CR-000107. Add support for exclusion and inclusion of Interval limits.

A Goodchild

CR-000116. Add PARTICIPATION.function vocabulary and invariant.

T Beale

CR-000122. Fix UML in Terminology_access classes in Support model.

D Lloyd

CR-000118. Make package names lower-case.

T Beale

CR-000111. Move Identification Package to Support.

DSTC

CR-000064. Re-evaluate COMPOSITION.is_persistent attribute. Add "composition category" vocabulary. Re-ordered vocabularies alphabetically.

D alra

R E L E A S E     0.9

1.1

CR-000047. Improve handling of codes for structural attributes. Populated Terminology and code_set codes.

S Heard

11 Mar 2004

1.0

CR-000091. Correct anomalies in use of CODE_PHRASE and DV_CODED_TEXT. Add simple terminology service interface.

T Beale

09 Mar 2004

CR-000095. Remove property attribute from Quantity package. Add simple measurement interface.

DSTC

Formally validated using ISE Eiffel 5.4.

T Beale

0.9.9

CR-000063. ATTESTATION should have a status attribute.

D Kalra

13 Feb 2004

0.9.8

CR-000068. Correct errors in INTERVAL class.

T Beale

20 Dec 2003

0.9.7

CR-000032. Basic numeric type assumptions need to be stated.

DSTC

09 Oct 2003

CR-000041. Visually differentiate primitive types in openEHR documents.
CR-000043. Move External package to Common RM and rename to Identification (incorporates CR-000036 - Add HIER_OBJECT_ID class, make OBJECT_ID class abstract.)

D Lloyd,
T Beale

0.9.6

CR-000013. Rename key classes. Based on CEN ENV13606.
CR-000038. Remove archetype_originator from multi-axial archetype id.
CR-000039. Change archetype_id section separator from ':' to '-'.

T Beale

18 Sep 2003

0.9.5

CR-000036. Add HIER_OBJECT_ID class, make OBJECT_ID class abstract.

T Beale

16 Aug 2003

0.9.4

CR-000022. Code TERM_MAPPING.purpose.

G Grieve

20 Jun 2003

0.9.3

CR-000007. Added forgotten terminologies for Subject_relationships and Provider_functions.

T Beale

11 Apr 2003

0.9.2

Detailed review by Ocean, DSTC, Grahame Grieve. Updated valid characters in OBJECT_ID.namespace.

G Grieve
DSTC

25 Mar 2003

0.9.1

Added specification for BOOLEAN type. Corrected minor error in ISO 639 standard strings - now conformant to TERMINOLOGY_ID. OBJECT_ID.version_id now optional. Improved document structure.

T Beale

18 Mar 2003

0.9

Initial Writing. Taken from Data types and Common Reference Models. Formally validated using ISE Eiffel 5.2.

T Beale

25 Feb 2003

Acknowledgements

The work reported in this paper has been funded in by the following organisations:

  • University College London - Centre for Health Informatics and Multi-professional Education (CHIME);

  • Ocean Informatics;

  • Distributed Systems Technology Centre (DSTC), under the Cooperative Research Centres Program through the Department of the Prime Minister and Cabinet of the Commonwealth Government of Australia.

Special thanks to Prof David Ingram, head of CHIME, who provided a vision and collegial working environment ever since the days of GEHR (1992).

1. Preface

1.1. Purpose

This document describes the openEHR Support Information Model, whose semantics are used by all openEHR Reference Models.

The intended audience includes:

  • Standards bodies producing health informatics standards;

  • Academic groups using openEHR;

  • The open source healthcare community;

  • Solution vendors;

  • Medical informaticians and clinicians interested in health information.

Prerequisite documents for reading this document include:

1.3. Status

This specification is in the STABLE state. The development version of this document can be found at http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/latest/support.html.

Known omissions or questions are indicated in the text with a 'to be determined' paragraph, as follows:

TBD: (example To Be Determined paragraph)

Users are encouraged to comment on and/or advise on these paragraphs as well as the main content. Feedback should be provided either on the technical mailing list, or on the specifications issue tracker.

1.4. Conformance

Conformance of a data or software artifact to an openEHR Reference Model specification is determined by a formal test of that artifact against the relevant openEHR Implementation Technology Specification(s) (ITSs), such as an IDL interface or an XML-schema. Since ITSs are formal, automated derivations from the Reference Model, ITS conformance indicates RM conformance.

2. Support Package

2.1. Overview

The Support Reference Model comprises types used throughout the openEHR models, including assumed primitive types defined outside of openEHR. The package structure is illustrated below. The assumed_types 'pseudo-package' stands for types assumed by the openEHR specifcations to exist in an implementation technology, such as a programming language, schema language or database environment. The four Support packages define the semantics respectively for constants, terminology access, access to externally defined scientific units and conversion information. The class EXTERNAL_ENVIRONMENT_ACCESS is a mixin class providing access to the service interface classes.

RM support overview
Figure 1. rm.support and assumed_types Packages

2.2. Class Definitions

2.2.1. EXTERNAL_ENVIRONMENT_ACCESS Class

Class

EXTERNAL_ENVIRONMENT_ACCESS (abstract)

Description

A mixin class providing access to services in the external environment.

Inherit

TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE, MEASUREMENT_SERVICE

3. Assumed Types

3.1. Overview

This section describes types assumed by all openEHR models. The set of types chosen here is based on a common set from various published sources, including:

  • ISO 11404 (2003 revision) general purpose data types;

  • ISO 8601 (2004) date/time specification;

  • Well-known interoperability formalisms, including OMG IDL, W3C XML-schema;

  • Well-known object-oriented programming languages, including Java, C#, C++ and Eiffel.

The intention in openEHR is twofold. Firstly, to ensure that openEHR software based on the models integrates as easily as possible with existing implementation technologies, and secondly, to make the minimum possible assumptions about types found in implementation formalisms, while making sufficient assumptions to both enable openEHR models to be conveniently specified. The ISO 11404 (2003) standard contains basic semantics of "general purpose data types" (GPDs) for information technology, and is used here as a normative basis for describing assumptions about types. The operations and properties described here are compatible with those used in ISO 11404, but not always the same, as 11404 does not use object-oriented functions. For example, the notional function has (x:T) (test for presence of a value in a set) defined on the type Set<T> below is not defined on the ISO 11404 Set type; instead, the function IsIn(x: T; s: Set<T>) is defined. However, in object-oriented formalisms, the function IsIn defined on a Set type would usually mean 'subset of'. In the interests of clarity for developers, an object-oriented style of functions and properties has been used here.

ISO8601:2004 is used as the definitional basis for assumed date/time types, since it is commonly used around the world, and is also the basis for the date/time types in W3C XML-schema. See section Date/Time Types below for details of dates and times.

Two groups of assumed types are identified: primitive types, which are those built in to a formalism’s type system, and library types, which are assumed to be available in a (class) library defined in the formalism. Thus, the type Boolean is always assumed to exist in a formalism, while the type Array<T> is assumed to be available in a library. For practical purposes, these two categories do not matter that much - whether String is really a library class (the usual case) or an inbuilt type doesn’t make much difference to the programmer. They are shown separately here mainly as an explanatory convenience.

The assumptions that openEHR makes about existing types are documented below in terms of interface definitions. Each of these definitions contains only the assumptions required for the given type to be used in the openEHR Reference Model - it is not by any means a complete interface definition. The name and semantics of any function used here for an assumed type might not be identical to those found in some implementation technologies. Any mapping required should be stated in the relevant implementation technology specification (ITS). To give a concrete example, where the assumed Set<T> type defined below has an operation has (item: T): Boolean which is used throughout the openEHR specifications, Java has the method contains() on its Set<T> class. In a Java implementation, the contains () method should then be used throughout the openEHR classes as expressed in Java, in place of the has () method.

3.2. Inbuilt Primitive Types

The following types consititute the minimum set of primitive types assumed by openEHR of an implementation formalism.

Type name
in openEHR
Description ISO 11404
Type

Octet

represents a type whose value is an 8-bit value.

Octet

Character

represents a type whose value is a member of an 8-bit character-set (ISO: "repertoire").

Character

Boolean

represents logical True/False values; usually physically represented as an integer, but need not be

Boolean

Integer

represents 32-bit integers

Integer

Integer64

represents 64-bit integers

Integer64

Real

represents 32-bit real numbers in any interoperable representation, including single-width IEEE floating point

Real

Double

type which represents 64-bit real numbers, in any interoperable representation including double-precision IEEE floating point.

Real

The figure below illustrates the built-in primitive types. Simple inheritance relationships are shown which facilitate the type descriptions below. A class "Any" is used to stand for the usual top-level class in all object-oriented type systems, typically called something like "Any" or "Object". Inheritance from or subsitutability for an Any class is not assumed in openEHR (hence the dotted lines in the UML). It is used here to enable basic operations like '=' to be described once for the type Any, rather than in every subtype. The type Ordered_numeric is on the other hand assumed for purposes of specification in the openEHR data_types.quantity package, and is intended to be mapped to an equivalent type in a real type system (e.g. in Java, java.lang.Number). Here it is assumed that the operations defined on Ordered_numeric are available on the types Integer, Real and Double in implementation type systems, where relevant. Data-oriented implementation type systems such as XML-schema do not have such operations.

BASE base types.assumed types
Figure 2. Primitive Types Assumed by openEHR

3.2.1. Any Class

Class

Any (abstract)

Description

Abstract supertype. Usually maps to a type like “Any” or “Object” in an object system. Defined here to provide the value and reference equality semantics.

Functions

Signature

Meaning

is_equal (other: Any): Boolean

Value equality.

infix = (other: Any): Boolean

instance_of (a_type: String): Any

Create new instance of a type.

type_of (an_object: Any): String

3.2.2. Numeric Class

Class

Numeric (abstract)

Description

Abstract notional parent class of numeric types, which are types which have various arithmetic and comparison operators defined.

Inherit

Any

Functions

Signature

Meaning

infix * (other: Numeric): Numeric

Product by `other'. Actual type of result depends on arithmetic balancing rules.

infix + (other: Numeric): Numeric

Sum with `other' (commutative). Actual type of result depends on arithmetic balancing rules.

infix - (other: Numeric): Numeric

Result of subtracting `other'. Actual type of result depends on arithmetic balancing rules.

3.2.3. Ordered Class

Class

Ordered (abstract)

Description

Abstract notional parent class of ordered, types i.e. types on which the ‘<‘ operator is defined.

Inherit

Any

Functions

Signature

Meaning

infix < (other: Ordered): Boolean

Arithmetic comparison. In conjunction with ‘=’, enables the definition of the operators ‘>’, ‘>=’, ‘⇐’, ‘<>’. In real type systems, this operator might be defined on another class for comparability.

3.2.4. Ordered_Numeric Class

Class

Ordered_Numeric (abstract)

Description

Abstract notional parent class of ordered, numeric types, which are types with ‘<‘ and arithmetic operators defined.

Inherit

Ordered, Numeric

3.2.5. Boolean Class

Class

Boolean

Description

Inherit

Any

Functions

Signature

Meaning

infix and (other: Boolean): Boolean
Post_de_Morgan: Result = not (not self or not other)
Post_commutative: Result = (other and self)

Logical conjunction

infix and_then (other: Boolean): Boolean
Post_de_Morgan: Result = not (not self or else not other)

Boolean semi-strict conjunction with other

infix or (other: Boolean): Boolean
Post_de_Morgan: Result = not (not self and not other)
Post_commutative: Result = (other or Current)
Post_consistent_with_semi_strict: Result implies (self or else other)

Boolean disjunction with other.

infix or_else (other: Boolean): Boolean
Post_de_Morgan: Result = not (not self and then not other)

Boolean semi-strict disjunction with `other'.

infix xor (other: Boolean): Boolean
Post_definition: Result = self or other) and not (self and other

Boolean exclusive or with `other'.

infix implies (other: Boolean): Boolean
Post_definition: Result = (not self or else other)

Boolean implication of `other' (semi-strict)

Invariant

Involutive_negation: is_equal (not (not self))

Non_contradiction: not (self and (not self))

Completeness: self or else (not self)

3.2.6. Integer Class

Class

Integer

Description

Inherit

Ordered_Numeric

3.2.7. Integer64 Class

Class

Integer64

Description

Inherit

Ordered_Numeric

3.2.8. Real Class

Class

Real

Description

Type used to represent decimal numbers. Corresponds to a single-precision floating point value in most languages.

Inherit

Ordered_Numeric

Functions

Signature

Meaning

floor: Integer

Return the greatest integer no greater than the value of this object.

3.3. Assumed Library Types

The types described in this section are also assumed to be fairly standard in implementation technologies by openEHR, but usually come from type libraries rather than being built into the type system of implementation formalisms.

Type name
in openEHR
Description ISO 11404
Type

String

represents unicode-enabled strings

Character-String/Sequence

Array<T>

physical container of items indexed by number

Array

List<T>

container of items, implied order, non-unique membership

Sequence

Set<T>

container of items, no order, unique membership

Set

Hash<T,U:Comparable>

a table of values of any type T, keyed by values of any basic comparable type U, typically String or Integer, but may be more complex types, e.g. a coded term type.

Table

Interval<T>

Intervals with open or closed upper and lower bounds.

-

The following UML diagram illustrates the assumed library types. As with the assumed primitive types, inheritance and abstract classes are used for convenience of the definitions below, but are not formally assumed in openEHR.

BASE base types.structure
Figure 3. Library Types Assumed by openEHR

3.3.1. String Class

Class

String

Description

Strings of characters, as used to represent textual data in any natural or formal language.

Inherit

Any

Functions

Signature

Meaning

infix + (other: String): String

Concatenation operator - causes ‘other’ to be appended to this string.

is_empty: Boolean

True if string is empty, i.e. equal to "".

is_integer: Boolean

True if string can be parsed as an integer.

as_integer: Integer

Return the integer corresponding to the integer value represented in this string.

Unicode

It is assumed in the openEHR specifications that Unicode is supported by the type String. Unicode is needed for all Asian, Arabic and other script languages, for both data values (particularly plain text and coded text) and for many predefined string attributes of the classes in the openEHR Reference Model. It encompasses all existing character sets. In openEHR, UTF-8 encoding is assumed.

3.3.2. Aggregate Class

Class

Aggregate (abstract)

Description

Number of items in container.

Inherit

Any

Functions

Signature

Meaning

has (v: T): Boolean

Test for membership of a value.

count: Integer

is_empty: boolean

True if container is empty.

3.3.3. List Class

Class

List

Description

Ordered container that may contain duplicates.

Inherit

Aggregate

Functions

Signature

Meaning

first: T

Return first element.

last: T

Return last element.

Invariant

First_validity: not is_empty implies first /= Void

Last_validity: not is_empty implies last /= Void

3.3.4. Set Class

Class

Set

Description

Unordered container that may not contain duplicates.

Inherit

Aggregate

3.3.5. Array Class

Class

Array

Description

Container whose storage is assumed to be contiguous.

Inherit

Aggregate

3.3.6. Hash Class

Class

Hash

Description

Type representing a keyed table of values. T is the value type, and U the type of the keys.

Inherit

Aggregate

Functions

Signature

Meaning

has_key (a_key: K): Boolean

Test for membership of a key.

item (a_key: K): V

Return item for key a_key'. Equivalent to ISO 11404 fetch operation.

3.3.7. Interval Class

Class

Interval

Description

Interval of ordered items.

Inherit

Any

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

0..1

lower: T

lower bound.

0..1

upper: T

Upper bound.

1..1

lower_unbounded: boolean

lower boundary open (i.e. = -infinity)

1..1

upper_unbounded: boolean

upper boundary open (i.e. = +infinity)

1..1

lower_included: boolean

lower boundary value included in range if not lower_unbounded.

1..1

upper_included: boolean

upper boundary value included in range if not upper_unbounded.

Functions

Signature

Meaning

has (e): boolean

True if (lower_unbounded or lower_included and v >= lower) or v > lower and (upper_unbounded or upper_included and v ⇐ upper or v < upper)

Invariant

Lower_included_valid: lower_unbounded implies not lower_included

Upper_included_valid: upper_unbounded implies not upper_included

Limits_consistent: (not upper_unbounded and not lower_unbounded) implies lower ⇐ upper

Limits_comparable: (not upper_unbounded and not lower_unbounded) implies lower.strictly_comparable_to (upper)

3.4. Date/Time Types

Although the ISO 11404 (2003) standard defines a date-and-time type generator (section 8.1.6), and a timeinterval type (section 10.1.6), a more widely used specification of date/times is given by ISO 8601:2004, which is used as the normative basis for both string literal representation and properties used within openEHR. The types are shown in the UML diagram below.

BASE base types.time
Figure 4. Date/Time types assumed by openEHR

ISO 8601 semantics not used in openEHR include:

  • "expanded" dates, which have year numbers of greater than 4 digits, and may be negative; in openEHR, only 4-digit year numbers are assumed;

  • the YYYY-WW-DD method of expressing dates (since this is imprecise and difficult to compute with due to variable week starting dates, and not required in health);

  • partial date/times with fractional minutes or hours, e.g. hh,hhh or mm,mm; in openEHR, only fractional seconds are supported;

  • the interval syntax. Intervals of date/times are supported in openEHR, but their syntax form is defined by ADL, and is standardised across all comparable types, not just dates and times.

Deviations from the published standard include the following:

  • durations are supposed to take the form of PnnW or PnnYnnMnnDTnnHnnMnnS, but in openEHR, the W (week) designator can be used in combination with the other designators, since it is very common to state durations of pregnancy as some combination of weeks and days.

  • partial variants of ISO8601_DATE_TIME can include missing hours, days and months, whereas ISO 8601:2004 (section 4.3.3 c) only allows missing seconds and minutes. The reasons for this deviation are:

    • the same deviation is used in HL7v2 and HL7v3 TS (timestamp) type, i.e. there are data in existing clinical systems matching this specification;

    • in a typed object model, this deviation is more sensible anyway; the ISO 8601 rule is most likely a limitation of the purely syntactic means of expression. In real systems where a timestamp/date-time is specified in a screen form, it makes sense to allow it to be as partial as possible, rather than artifically restricted to only missing seconds and minutes.

  • the time 24:00:00 (or 240000) is not allowed anywhere, whereas in ISO8601:2004 it appears to be legal at least for times. This deviation is also appears to be used in HL7v2 and HL7v3 (where midnight is defined as the time 00:00:00), and is preferable to the documented standard, since a date/time with time of 24:00:00 is really the next day, i.e. the date part is then incorrect.

The following class definitions provide an object-oriented expression of the semantics of the subset of ISO 8601:2004 used by openEHR.

See http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/iso-time.html and the official ISO standard for ISO 8601 details. Note that in the date, time and date_time formats shown below, 'Z' and 'T' are literals. In the duration class shown below, 'P', 'Y', 'M', 'W', 'D', 'H', 'S' and 'T' are literals.

3.4.1. TIME_DEFINITIONS Class

Class

TIME_DEFINITIONS

Description

Definitions for date/time classes. Note that the timezone limits are set by where the international dateline is. Thus, time in New Zealand is quoted using +12:00, not -12:00.

Constants

Signature

Meaning

1..1

Seconds_in_minute: Integer

1..1

Minutes_in_hour: Integer

1..1

Hours_in_day: Integer

1..1

Nominal_days_in_month: Real

Used for conversions of durations containing months to days and / or seconds.

1..1

Max_days_in_month: Integer

1..1

Days_in_year: Integer

1..1

Days_in_leap_year: Integer

1..1

Max_days_in_year: Integer

1..1

Nominal_days_in_year: Real

Used for conversions of durations containing years to days and / or seconds.

1..1

Days_in_week: Integer

1..1

Months_in_year: Integer

1..1

Min_timezone_hour: Integer

Minimum hour value of a timezone (note that the -ve sign is supplied in the ISO8601_TIMEZONE class).

1..1

Max_timezone_hour: Integer

Functions

Signature

Meaning

valid_year (y: Integer): Boolean
Post: Result = y >= 0

valid_month (m: Integer): Boolean
Post: Result = m >= 1 and m ⇐ Months_in_year

valid_day (y: Integer, m: Integer, d: Integer): Boolean
Post: Result = d >= 1 and d ⇐ days_in_month (m, y)

True if d >= 1 and d ⇐ days_in_month (m, y)

valid_hour (h, m, s: Integer): Boolean
Post: Result = (h >= 0 and h < Hours_in_day) or (h = Hours_in_day and m = 0 and s = 0)

True if (h >= 0 and h < Hours_in_day) or (h = Hours_in_day and m = 0 and s = 0)

valid_minute (m: Integer): Boolean
Post: Result = m >= 0 and m < Minutes_in_hour

True if m >= 0 and m < Minutes_in_hour.

valid_second (s: Integer): Boolean
Post: Result = s >= 0 and s < Seconds_in_minute

True if s >= 0 and s < Seconds_in_minute .

valid_fractional_second (fs: Double): Boolean
Post: Result = fs >= 0.0 and fs < 1.0 .

True if fs >= 0.0 and fs < 1.0 .

3.4.2. ISO8601_TYPE Class

Class

ISO8601_TYPE (abstract)

Description

Inherit

Ordered, TIME_DEFINITIONS

Functions

Signature

Meaning

is_partial: Boolean

is_extended: Boolean

3.4.3. ISO8601_DATE Class

Class

ISO8601_DATE

Description

Represents an absolute point in time, as measured on the Gregorian calendar, and specified only to the day.

Inherit

ISO8601_TYPE

Functions

Signature

Meaning

year: Integer

Year.

month: Integer
Pre: not month_unknown

Month in year.

day: Integer

Day in month.

month_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether month in year is unknown. If so, the date is of the form “YYYY”.

day_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether day in month is unknown. If so, and month is known, the date is of the form “YYYY-MM” or “YYYYMM”.

as_string: String

ISO8601 string for date, in format YYYYMMDD or YYYY-MM-DD, or a partial invariant. See valid_iso8601_date for validity.

is_expanded: Boolean

True if this date uses ‘-’ separators.

valid_iso8601_date: Boolean

String is a valid ISO 8601 date, i.e. takes the complete form:

  • YYYYMMDD or the extended form:

  • YYYY-MM-DD or one of the partial forms:

  • YYYYMM

  • YYYY

or the equivalent extended form:

  • YYYY-MM

Where:

  • YYYY is the string form of any positive number in the range “0000” - “9999” (zero-filled to four digits)

  • MM is “01” - “12” (zero-filled to two digits)

  • DD is “01” - “31” (zero-filled to two digits)

The combinations of YYYY, MM, DD numbers must be correct with respect to the Gregorian calendar.

(effected)

is_partial: Boolean

True if this date is partial, i.e. if day or more is missing.

Invariant

Year_valid: valid_year (year)

Month_valid: not month_unknown implies valid_month (month)

Day_valid: not day_unknown implies valid_day (year, month, day)

Partial_validity: month_unknown implies day_unknown

3.4.4. ISO8601_TIME Class

Class

ISO8601_TIME

Description

Represents an absolute point in time from an origin usually interpreted as meaning the start of the current day, specified to the second.

Note
A small deviation to the ISO 8601:2004 standard in this class is that the time 24:00:00 is not allowed, for consistency with ISO8601_DATE_TIME.

Inherit

ISO8601_TYPE

Functions

Signature

Meaning

hour: Integer

Hour in day, in 24-hour time.

minute: Integer

Minute in hour.

second: Integer

fractional_second: Real
Pre: not second_unknown

Fractional seconds.

has_fractional_second: Boolean

True if the fractional_second part is signficant (i.e. even if = 0.0).

minute_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether minute is unknown. If so, the time is of the form “hh”.

second_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether second is unknown. If so and month is known, the time is of the form “hh:mm” or “hhmm”.

is_decimal_sign_comma: Boolean

True if this time has a decimal part indicated by ‘,’ (comma) rather than ‘.’ (period).

timezone: ISO8601_TIMEZONE

as_string: String

ISO8601 string for time, i.e. in form: hhmmss[,sss][Z|hh[mm]] or the extended form: hh:mm:ss[,sss][Z|hh[mm]], or a partial invariant. See valid_iso8601_time for validity.

valid_iso8601_time: Boolean

String is a valid ISO 8601 date, i.e. takes the form:

  • hhmmss[,sss][Z | hh[mm]]

or the extended form:

  • hh:mm:ss[,sss][Z | ±hh[mm]]

or one of the partial forms:

  • hhmm or hh

or the extended form:

  • hh:mm

with an additional optional timezone indicator of: * Z or hh[mm]

Where:

  • hh is “00” - “23” (0-filled to two digits)

  • mm is “00” - “59” (0-filled to two digits)

  • ss is “00” - “60” (0-filled to two digits)

  • sss is any numeric string, representing an optional fractional second

  • Z is a literal meaning UTC (modern replacement for GMT), i.e. timezone +0000

  • hh[mm], i.e. +hhmm, +hh, -hhmm, -hh indicating the timezone

(effected)

is_partial: Boolean

True if this time is partial, i.e. if seconds or more is missing.

(effected)

is_extended: Boolean

True if this time uses ‘:’ separators.

Invariant

Hour_valid: valid_hour(hour, minute, second)

Minute_valid: not minute_unknown implies valid_minute (minute)

Second_valid: not second_unknown implies valid_second (second)

Fractional_second_valid: has_fractional_second implies (not second_unknown and valid_fractional_second (fractional_second))

Partial_validity: minute_unknown implies second_unknown

3.4.5. ISO8601_DATE_TIME Class

Class

ISO8601_DATE_TIME

Description

Represents an absolute point in time, specified to the second.

Note that this class includes 2 deviations from ISO 8601:2004:

  • for partial date/times, any part of the date/time up to the month may be missing, not just seconds and minutes as in the standard;

  • the time 24:00:00 is not allowed, since it would mean the date was really on the next day.

Inherit

ISO8601_TYPE

Functions

Signature

Meaning

year: Integer

Year.

month: Integer
Pre: not month_unknown

Month in year.

day: Integer
Pre: not day_unknown

Day in month.

month_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether month in year is unknown.

day_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether day in month is unknown.

hour: Integer
Pre: not hour_unknown

Hour in day.

minute: Integer
Pre: not minute_unknown

Minute in hour.

second: Integer
Pre: not second_unknown

Second in minute.

fractional_second: Real

Fractional seconds.

has_fractional_second: Boolean

True if the fractional_second part is signficant (i.e. even if = 0.0).

minute_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether minute in hour is known.

second_unknown: Boolean

Indicates whether minute in hour is known.

is_decimal_sign_comma: Boolean

True if this time has a decimal part indicated by ‘,’ (comma) rather than ‘.’ (period).

timezone: ISO8601_TIMEZONE

Timezone; may be Void.

as_string: String

ISO8601 string for date/time, in format YYYYMMDDThhmmss[,sss][Z | ±hh[mm]] or in extended format YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss[,sss][Z | ±hh[mm]] or a partial variant; see valid_iso8601_date_time() below.

valid_iso8601_date_time (s: String): Boolean

String is a valid ISO 8601 date-time, i.e. takes the form:

  • YYYYMMDDThhmmss[,sss][Z | hh[mm]]

or the extended form:

  • YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ss[,sss][Z | hh[mm]]

or one of the partial forms:

  • YYYYMMDDThhmm

  • YYYYMMDDThh

or the equivalent extended forms:

  • YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm

  • YYYY-MM-DDThh

(meanings as in DV_DATE, DV_TIME) and the values in each field are valid.

(effected)

is_extended: Boolean

True if this date/time uses ‘-’, ‘:’ separators.

(effected)

is_partial: Boolean

True if this date time is partial, i.e. if seconds or more is missing.

Invariant

Year_valid: valid_year (year)

Month_valid: valid_month (month)

Day_valid: valid_day(year, month, day)

Hour_valid: valid_hour (hour, minute, second)

Minute_valid: not minute_unknown implies valid_minute(minute)

Second_valid: not second_unknown implies valid_second (second)

Fractional_second_valid: has_fractional_second implies (not second_unknown and valid_fractional_second (fractional_second))

Partial_validity_year: not month_unknown

Partial_validity_month: not month_unknown

Partial_validity_day: not day_unknown

Partial_validity_hour: not hour_unknown

Partial_validity_minute: minute_unknown implies second_unknown

3.4.6. ISO8601_DURATION Class

Class

ISO8601_DURATION

Description

Represents a period of time corresponding to a difference between two timepoints.

Inherit

ISO8601_TYPE

Functions

Signature

Meaning

years: Integer

Number of years of nominal 365-day length.

months: Integer

days: Integer

Number of 24 hour days.

hours: Integer

Number of 60 minute hours.

minutes: Integer

Number of 60 second minutes.

seconds: Integer

Number of seconds.

fractional_seconds: Real

Fractional seconds.

is_decminal_sign_comma: Boolean

True if this time has a decimal part indicated by ',' (comma) rather than '.' (period).

weeks: Integer

Number of 7 day weeks.

as_string: String

ISO8601 string for duration, in format

  • P[nnY][nnM][nnW][nnD][T[nnH][nnM][nnS]]

valid_iso8601_duration (s: String): Boolean

to_seconds: Integer

Total number of seconds equivalent (including fractional) of entire duration.

Invariant

Years_valid: years >= 0

Months_valid: months >= 0

Weeks_valid: weeks >= 0

Days_valid: days >= 0

Hours_valid: hours >= 0

Minutes_valid: minutes >= 0

Seconds_valid: seconds >= 0

Fractional_second_valid: fractional_second >= 0.0 and fractional_second < 1.0

3.4.7. ISO8601_TIMEZONE Class

Class

ISO8601_TIMEZONE

Description

Represents a timezone as used in ISO 8601.

Inherit

TIME_DEFINITIONS

Functions

Signature

Meaning

hour: Integer

Hour part of timezone - in the range 00 - 13.

minute: Integer

Minute part of timezone. Generally 00 or 30.

is_gmt: Boolean

True if timezone is UTC, i.e. +0000.

sign: Integer

Direction of timezone expresssed as +1 or -1.

minute_unknown: Integer

Indicates whether minute part known.

as_string: String

ISO8601 timezone string, in format:

  • Z | hh[mm]

where:

  • hh is “00” - “23” (0-filled to two digits)

  • mm is “00” - “59” (0-filled to two digits)

  • Z is a literal meaning UTC (modern replacement for GMT), i.e. timezone +0000

Invariant

Min_hour_valid: sign = -1 implies hour > 0 and hour ⇐ Min_timezone_hour

Max_hour_valid: sign = 1 implies hour > 0 and hour ⇐ Max_timezone_hour

Minute_valid: not minute_unknown implies valid_minute (minute)

Sign_valid: sign = 1 or sign = -1

4. Identification Package

4.1. Overview

The rm.support.identification package describes a model of references and identifiers for information entities and is illustrated below.

RM support.identification
Figure 5. rm.support.identification Package

4.1.1. Requirements

Identification of entities both in the real world and in information systems is a non-trivial problem. The needs for identification across systems in a health information environment include the following:

  • real world identifiers such as social security numbers, veterans affairs ids etc can be recorded as required by health care facilities, enterprise policies, or legislation;

  • identifiers for informational entities which represent real world entities or processes should be unique;

  • it should be possible to determine if two identifiers refer to information entities that represent the same real world entity, even if instances of the information entities are maintained in different systems;

  • versions or changes to real-world entity-linked informational entities (which may create new information instances) should be accounted for in two ways:

    • it should be possible to tell if two identifiers refer to distinct versions of the same informational entity in the same version tree;

    • it should not be possible to confuse same-named versions of informational entities maintained in multiple systems which purport to represent the same real world entity. E.g. there is no guarantee that two systems' "latest" version of the Person "Dr Jones" is the same.

    • Medico-legal use of information relies on previous states of information being distinguishable from other previous states and the current state.

  • It should be possible for an entity in one system or service (such as the EHR) to refer to an entity in another system or service in such a way that:

    • the target of the reference is easily finable within the shared environment, and

    • the reference does is valid regardless of the physical architecture of servers and applications.

The following subsections describe some of the features and challenges of identification.

Identification of Real World Entities (RWEs)

Real world entities such as people, car engines, invoices, and appointments can all be assigned identifiers. Although many of these are designed to be unique within a jurisdiction, they are often not, due to data entry errors, bad design (ids that are too small or incorporate some non-unique characteristic of the identified entities), bad process (e.g. non-synchronised id issuing points); identity theft (e.g. via theft of documents of proof or hacking). In general, while some real world identifiers (RWIs) are "nearly unique", none can be guaranteed so. It should also be the case that if two RWE identifiers are equal, they refer to the same RWE, but this is often not the case. For practical purposes, RWIs cannot be regarded as computationally safe for making the inferences described here.

Identification of Informational Entities (IEs)

As soon as information systems are used to record facts about RWEs, the situation becomes more complex because of the intangible nature of information. In particular:

  • the same RWE can be represented simultaneously on more than one system ('spatial multiplicity');

  • the same RWE may be represented by more than one "version" of the same IE in a system ('temporal multiplicity').

At first sight, it appears that there can also be purely informational entities, i.e. IEs which do not refer to any RWE, such as books, online-only documents and software. However, as soon as one considers an example it becomes clear that there is always a notional 'definitive' or 'authoritative' (i.e. trusted) version of every such entity. These entities can better be understood as 'virtual RWEs'. Thus it can still be said that multiple IEs may refer to any given RWE.

The underlying reason for the multiplicity of IEs is that 'reality' - time and space - in computer systems is not continuous but discrete, and each 'entity' is in fact just a snapshot of certain attribute values of a RWE, at a point in time, in a particular system. If identifiers are assigned to IEs without regard to versions or duplicates, then no assertion can be made about the identified RWE when two IE ids are compared.

Identification of Versions

The notion of 'versioning' applies only to informational entities, i.e. distinct instances of content each representing a snapshot of some logical entity. Where such instances are stored and managed in versioned containers within a versioning system of some kind, explicit identification of the versions is required. The requirements are discussed in detail in the Common IM, change_control package.

They can be summarised as follows:

  • it must be possible to distinguish two versions of the same logical entity, i.e. know from the identifier if they are the same or different versions of the same thing;

  • it must be possible to distinguish two versions of the same logical entity created in two distinct systems;

  • it must be possible to tell the relationship between the items in a versioned lineage, from the version identifiers.

Referencing of Informational Entities

Within a distributed information environment, there is a need for entities not connected by direct references in the same memory space to be able to refer to each other. There are two competing requirements: * that the separation of objects in a distributed computing environment not compromise the semantics of the model; * that different types of information can be managed relatively independently; for example EHR and demographic information can be managed by different groups in an organisation or community, each with at least some freedom to change implementation and model details.

4.2. Design

This package models only informational identifiers, i.e. transparent identifiers understood by openEHR or related computational systems. Real World Entity Identifiers such as driver’s license numbers are modelled using the data type DV_IDENTIFIER. This is not to imply that such identifiers are any less systematic or well-managed than the system identifiers defined here, only that from the point of view of openEHR, they have the same status as other informational attributes such as name, address etc of a Person.

A key design decision has been to choose a string representation for all identifiers, with subparts being made available by appropriate functions which perform simple parsing on the string. This ensures that the data representation of identifiers (e.g. in XML) is as small as possible, while not losing object-oriented typing.

4.2.1. Primitive Identifiers

Three kinds of types are defined in this package. The abstract UID type and its subtypes correspond to permanent, computationally reliable, primitive identifiers. Such identifiers are regarded as 'primitive' because they are treated as having no further internal structure, in the sense that part of such an identifier is not in general meaningful. The three subtypes UUID, ISO_OID and INTERNET_ID all have these properties, and are commonly accepted ways of uniquely identifying entities in computer systems. In openEHR (and generally in health informatics) they are usually used as parts of other identifiers.

A consequence of the string representation approach used in these classes is that to set an attribute of type UID from a string value, as would be done when reading from a database, deserialising from XML or another text form, a piece of code that inspects the string structure has to be used in order to decide which of the subtypes of UID it is. This is a safe thing to do, since all three subtypes have mutually exclusive string patterns, and can easily be distinguished.

4.2.2. Composite Identifiers

The OBJECT_ID type and its hierarchy of subtypes define all of the identifier types used within openEHR systems. Most of these have a multi-part structure, and some are 'meaningful' i.e. human readable. The identifier types can be used to represent identifier values that fall into two groups semantically: those defined by openEHR (which may incorporate generic standard identifiers, such as ISO Oids etc) and those defined by external organisations. The groups are as shown in the following table. Identifiers whose form is defined by the HIER_OBJECT_ID type are used both by openEHR and many other organisations.

openEHR-defined identifiers Externally defined identifiers

OBJECT_VERSION_ID

TERMINOLOGY_ID

ARCHEYTPE_ID

GENERIC_ID

TEMPLATE_ID

HIER_OBJECT_ID

HIER_OBJECT_ID

UID-based Identifiers

The abstract type UID_BASED_ID and its two subtypes HIER_OBJECT_ID and OBJECT_VERSION_ID provide respectively, UID-based identifiers for non-versioned and versioned items. The design of the latter subtype is explained in the openEHR Common IM, change_control package.

Archetype Identifiers

The ARCHETYPE_ID subtype defines a multi-axial identifier for archetypes, meaning that each identifier instance denotes a single archetype within a multi-dimensional space. The space is can be thought of as 3-dimensional, or as a versioned 2-dimensional space, consisting of the following axes:

  • reference model entity, i.e. target of archetype, defined as:

    • name of model issuer;

    • name of model (there may be more than one from the same issuer);

    • name of concept in model, i.e. class name

  • domain concept;

  • version.

The three outer sections are delimited by '.' characters, while the parts of the first section are delimited by '-' characters. As with any multi-axial identifier, the underlying principle of an archetype identifier is that all parts of the identifier must be able to be considered immutable. This means that no variable characteristic of an archetype (e.g. accrediting authority, which might change due to later accreditation by another authority, or may be multiple) can be included in its identifier. The explicit inclusion of version as part of the identifier means that two 'versions' of an archetype are actually two distinct archetypes. (The rules for archetype versions, revisions and other variants are given in the openEHR Archetype Identification specification [openehr_am_identification].)

Examples of archetype identifiers include:

  • openEHR-EHR-SECTION.physical_examination.v2

  • openEHR-EHR-SECTION.physical_examination-prenatal.v1

  • Hl7-RIM-Act.progress_note.v1

  • openEHR-EHR-OBSERVATION.progress_note-naturopathy.v2

The grammar of archetype identifiers is given below in [Archetype Id Syntax].

WARNING:some archetype authoring tools have historically allowed a nonconforming version part within archetype identifiers which included the lifecycle status. This has led to some archetypes having an identifier whose version part is of the form '.v1draft' or similar. The openEHR Foundation will publish guidelines and a timeline on its website for dealing with this problem. New and existing archetype tools may have to support this exception, depending on where they are to be used, and it is recommended that it at least be supported via a command line switch or option. Where such non-conforming archetypes are re-used within a new environment, the identifier should be corrected.

Template Identifiers

The template identifier is similar in intention to the achetype identifier - it provides a multi-axial, readable identifier in addition to any UID-style of identifier that may be used. In this release, the exact structure has not been defined, but a current proposal is as follows:

  • authoring organisation reverse domain name;

  • identifier of reference model class being templated;

  • logical name of the template;

  • version identifier in the form 'vn' where n is a numerical version identifier.

This would lead to identifiers like the following:

  • uk.nhs.cfh:openehr-EHR-COMPOSITION.admission_ed.v5

A firm form of template identifiers will be described in a future release.

Terminology Identifiers

The TERMINOLOGY_ID subtype defines a globally unique single string identifier for terminologies. Terminology identifier values may include a version, either as part of the name, and/or according to the syntax defined in section 4.3.12 below. Examples of terminology identifiers include:

  • "SNOMED-CT"

  • "ICD9(1999)"

Currently the best authoritative source for the name part of the identifier (i.e. the part excluding the optional version part in parentheses) is the US National Library of Medicine UMLS identifiers for included terminologies - see http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html.

The scheme defined by the TERMINOLOGY_ID class provides for the situation where major 'versions' of a terminology such as the World Health Organisation’s 'ICD10' and 'ICD10AM' (AM = 'Australian modifications') can accommodate a finer grain of versioning or revisioning, e.g.:

  • "ICD10AM(3rd_ed)"

  • "ICD10AM(4th_ed)"

The version part of a terminology identifier is in theory only absolutely necessary for those terminologies which break the rule that the concept being identified with a code loses or changes its meaning over versions of the terminology. This should not be the case for modern terminologies and ontologies, particularly those designed since the publication of Cimino’s 'desiderata' [Doc No:] of which the principle of 'concept permanance' is applicable here - "A concept’s meaning cannot change and it cannot be deleted from the vocabulary". However, there may be older terminologies, or specialised terminologies which may not have obeyed these rules, but which are still used; version ids should always be used for these. At a practical level, versions may be included routinely in some systems to support the potential medico-legal need to prove that a) a given code was in fact defined in the terminology (it may not have existed in an earlier edition) and b) that the meaning assmued in the system was indeed the one assigned to it in the particular version or edition.

Equivalence

Although there are anomalies in some published terminologies and between some versions or editions of the same terminology, two terminology identifiers that are the same, disregarding the version part, can usually be considered as semantic equivalents in the terminology world. However, depending on which source of strings have been chosen for the name part of the identifier, two different identifiers may also indicate the same terminology, e.g. "ICD10AM_2000" (NLM identifier used in UMLS) and "ICD10AM(2nd_ed)" refer to the same thing.

Identifying Versions within openEHR Versioned Containers

The OBJECT_VERSION_ID defines the semantics of the scheme used in openEHR for identifying versions within a versioned container, and uses a three-part identifier, consisting of:

  • object_id: the identifier of the version container, in the form of an UID;

  • version_tree_id: the location in the version tree, as a 1- or 3-part numeric identifier, where the latter variant expresses branching; this is modelled using the VERSION_TREE_ID type;

  • creating_system_id: the identifier of the system in which this version was created, or type UID.

Under this scheme, multiple versions in the same container all have the same value for object_id, while their location in the version tree is given by the combination of the version tree identifier and the identifier of the creating system.

The requirements on the third part of the identifier are that it be unique per system, and that it be easy to obtain or generate. It is also helpful if it is a meaningful identifier. The two most practical candidates appear to be GUIDs (which are not meaningful, but are easy to generate) and reverse internet domain identifiers, as recommended in [3] (these are easy to determine if the system has an internet address, and are meaningful and directly processible, however unconnected systems pose a problem). ISO Oids might also be used. All of these identifier types are accommodated via the use of UID. A full explanation of the version identification scheme and its capabilities is given in the change_control section of the Common IM.

Generic and External Identifiers

The GENERIC_ID type provides for identifiers of schemes other than defined concretely in the rm.support.identification package. It has a single method scheme, which may be used to record the identifier type. The names of schemes are not currently controlled.

Hierarchical Identifiers

The HIER_OBJECT_ID type is defined to support hierarchical identifiers, often based on ISO Oids or other similar machine-readable and -resolvable schemes.

Composite Identifiers and Case

All composite identifiers should follow two rules with regard to case, namely:

  • to be case-preserving - not change case due to persistence, copying, transfer or other computation processes;

  • to be case-insensitive - two identifiers identical apart from case are considered to be identical, and therefore to identify the same thing.

The practical consequences of these rules are as follows:

  • mixed-case identifiers may be used, such as archetype identifiers, mixed-case reverse domain identifiers (the INTERNET_ID type);

  • the original case chosen in the letters of identifiers on creation within an openEHR system should be as published by the relevant issuing organisation (e.g. NLM UMLS terminology names are all upper case);

  • if identifiers are used as part of filenames within computer file systems, care must be taken to create and preserve filenames correctly. For this reason, software usually has to handle filename creation and modification differently on Unix-style operating systems, which are case-sensitive (and therefore case-preserving), and Windows-style operating systems, which are case-insensitive but usually case-preserving.

These rules do not apply to any identifier constructed in a language in which case does not exist as a concept. For this reason, for identifiers translated in and out of the Turkish language (and possibly in smaller related languages), care must be taken with the 'I/i' characters.

Composite Identifiers and Language

In all of the 'meaningful' identifier types above, with the posible exception of GENERIC_ID, the human-readable identifier sections are assumed to use only the basic latin character set, possibly with the addition of other special characters as allowed by the production rules defined below for each identifier. In most cases, the textual parts of these identifiers will be words from the English language, or else they will be recognisable words from other languages, where necessary alliterated into the latin alphabet. Accented and other diacritical letter variants are not allowed. This limitation is made in the interests of practical computability of identifiers, and is in common with class and attribute naming in shared UML models in the standards world, and also with internet domain names and internet URIs.

4.2.3. References

All OBJECT_IDs are used as identifier attributes within the thing they identify, in the same way as a database primary key. To refer to an identified object from another object, an instance of the class OBJECT_REF should generally be used, in the same way as a database foreign key. The class OBJECT_REF is provided as a means of distributed referencing, and includes the object namespace (typically 1:1 with some service, such as "terminology") and type. The general principle of object references is to be able to refer to an object available in a particular namespace or service. Usually they are used to refer to objects in other services, such as a demographic entity from within an EHR, but they may be used to refer to local objects as well. The type may be the concrete type of the referred-to object (e.g. "GP") or any proper ancestor (e.g. PARTY).

4.3. Class Descriptions

4.3.1. UID Class

Class

UID (abstract)

Description

Abstract parent of classes representing unique identifiers which identify information entities in a durable way. UIDs only ever identify one IE in time or space and are never re-used.

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

1..1

value: String

The value of the id.

Invariant

Value_valid: not value.empty

4.3.2. ISO_OID Class

Class

ISO_OID

Description

Model of ISO’s Object Identifier (oid) as defined by the standard ISO/IEC 8824. Oids are formed from integers separated by dots. Each non-leaf node in an Oid starting from the left corresponds to an assigning authority, and identifies that authority’s namespace, inside which the remaining part of the identifier is locally unique.

Inherit

UID

4.3.3. UUID Class

Class

UUID

Description

Model of the DCE Universal Unique Identifier or UUID which takes the form of hexadecimal integers separated by hyphens, following the pattern 8-4-4-4-12 as defined by the Open Group, CDE 1.1 Remote Procedure Call specification, Appendix A. Also known as a GUID.

Inherit

UID

4.3.4. INTERNET_ID Class

Class

INTERNET_ID

Description

Model of a reverse internet domain, as used to uniquely identify an internet domain. In the form of a dot-separated string in the reverse order of a domain name, specified by IETF RFC 1034 (http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1034.txt).

Inherit

UID

4.3.5. OBJECT_ID Class

Class

OBJECT_ID (abstract)

Description

Ancestor class of identifiers of informational objects. Ids may be completely meaningless, in which case their only job is to refer to something, or may carry some information to do with the identified object.

Object ids are used inside an object to identify that object. To identify another object in another service, use an OBJECT_REF, or else use a UID for local objects identified by UID. If none of the subtypes is suitable, direct instances of this class may be used.

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

1..1

value: String

The value of the id in the form defined below.

4.3.6. UID_BASED_ID Class

Class

UID_BASED_ID (abstract)

Description

Abstract model of UID-based identifiers consisting of a root part and an optional extension;

lexical form: root '::' extension

Inherit

OBJECT_ID

Functions

Signature

Meaning

root: UID

The identifier of the conceptual namespace in which the object exists, within the identification scheme. Returns the part to the left of the first ::' separator, if any, or else the whole string.

extension: String

Optional local identifier of the object within the context of the root identifier. Returns the part to the right of the first ::' separator if any, or else any empty String.

has_extension: Boolean

True if extension /= Void.

Invariant

Has_extension_valid: extension.is_empty xor has_extension

4.3.7. HIER_OBJECT_ID Class

Class

HIER_OBJECT_ID

Description

Concrete type corresponding to hierarchical identifiers of the form defined by UID_BASED_ID.

Inherit

UID_BASED_ID

4.3.8. OBJECT_VERSION_ID Class

Class

OBJECT_VERSION_ID

Description

Globally unique identifier for one version of a versioned object; lexical form: object_id ::' creating_system_id ::' version_tree_id

Inherit

UID_BASED_ID

Functions

Signature

Meaning

object_id: UID

Unique identifier for logical object of which this identifier identifies one version; normally the object_id will be the unique identifier of the version container containing the version referred to by this OBJECT_VERSION_ID instance.

version_tree_id: VERSION_TREE_ID

Tree identifier of this version with respect to other versions in the same version tree, as either 1 or 3 part dot-separated numbers, e.g. 1 , 2.1.4 .

creating_system_id: UID

Identifier of the system that created the Version corresponding to this Object version id.

is_branch: Boolean

True if this version identifier represents a branch.

4.3.9. VERSION_TREE_ID Class

Class

VERSION_TREE_ID

Description

Version tree identifier for one version. Lexical form:

trunk_version [ '.' branch_number '.' branch_version ]

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

1..1

value: String

String form of this identifier.

Functions

Signature

Meaning

trunk_version: String

Trunk version number; numbering starts at 1.

is_branch: Boolean

True if this version identifier represents a branch, i.e. has branch_number and branch_version parts.

branch_number: String

Number of branch from the trunk point; numbering starts at 1.

branch_version: String

Version of the branch; numbering starts at 1.

Invariant

Value_valid: not value.is_empty

Trunk_version_valid: trunk_version /= Void and then trunk_version.is_integer and then trunk_version.as_integer >= 1

Branch_number_valid: branch_number /= Void implies branch_number.is_integer and then branch_number.as_integer >= 1

Branch_version_valid: branch_version /= Void implies branch_version.is_integer and then branch_version.as_integer >= 1

Branch_validity: (branch_number = Void and branch_version = Void ) xor (branch_number /= Void and branch_version /= Void )

Is_branch_validity: is_branch xor branch_number = Void

Is_first_validity: not is_first xor trunk_version.is_equal(“1”)

4.3.10. ARCHETYPE_ID Class

Class

ARCHETYPE_ID

Description

Identifier for archetypes. Ideally these would identify globally unique archetypes. Lexical form: rm_originator -' rm_name -' rm_entity .' concept_name { -' specialisation }* .v' number

Inherit

OBJECT_ID

Functions

Signature

Meaning

qualified_rm_entity: String

Globally qualified reference model entity, e.g. openehr-composition-OBSERVATION.

domain_concept: String

Name of the concept represented by this archetype, including specialisation, e.g. Biochemistry_result-cholesterol .

rm_originator: String

Organisation originating the reference model on which this archetype is based, e.g. openehr , cen , hl7 .

rm_name: String

Name of the reference model, e.g. rim, ehr_rm, en13606 .

rm_entity: String

Name of the ontological level within the reference model to which this archetype is targeted, e.g. for openEHR, folder , composition , section , entry .

specialisation: String

Name of specialisation of concept, if this archetype is a specialisation of another archetype, e.g. cholesterol .

version_id: String

Version of this archetype.

4.3.11. TEMPLATE_ID Class

Class

TEMPLATE_ID

Description

Identifier for templates. Lexical form to be determined.

Inherit

OBJECT_ID

4.3.12. TERMINOLOGY_ID Class

Class

TERMINOLOGY_ID

Description

Identifier for terminologies such as accessed via a terminology query service. In this class, the value attribute identifies the Terminology in the terminology service, e.g. SNOMED-CT . A terminology is assumed to be in a particular language, which must be explicitly specified.

The value if the id attribute is the precise terminology id identifier, including actual release (i.e. actual version), local modifications etc; e.g. ICPC2.

Lexical form: name [ (' version )' ]

Inherit

OBJECT_ID

Functions

Signature

Meaning

name: String

Return the terminology id (which includes the version in some cases). Distinct names correspond to distinct (i.e. non-compatible) terminologies. Thus the names ICD10AM and ICD10 refer to distinct terminologies.

version_id: String

Version of this terminology, if versioning supported, else the empty string.

4.3.13. GENERIC_ID Class

Class

GENERIC_ID

Description

Generic identifier type for identifiers whose format is otherwise unknown to openEHR. Includes an attribute for naming the identification scheme (which may well be local).

Inherit

OBJECT_ID

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

1..1

scheme: String

Name of the scheme to which this identifier conforms. Ideally this name will be recognisable globally but realistically it may be a local ad hoc scheme whose name is not controlled or standardised in any way.

4.3.14. OBJECT_REF Class

Class

OBJECT_REF

Description

Class describing a reference to another object, which may exist locally or be maintained outside the current namespace, e.g. in another service. Services are usually external, e.g. available in a LAN (including on the same host) or the internet via Corba, SOAP, or some other distributed protocol. However, in small systems they may be part of the same executable as the data containing the Id.

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

1..1

id_namespace: String

Namespace to which this identifier belongs in the local system context (and possibly in any other openEHR compliant environment) e.g. terminology , demographic . These names are not yet standardised. Legal values for the namespace are: local | unknown | [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_-:/&+?]*

1..1

type: String

Name of the class (concrete or abstract) of object to which this identifier type refers, e.g. PARTY , PERSON , GUIDELINE etc. These class names are from the relevant reference model. The type name ANY can be used to indicate that any type is accepted (e.g. if the type is unknown).

1..1

id: OBJECT_ID

Globally unique id of an object, regardless of where it is stored.

4.3.15. ACCESS_GROUP_REF Class

Class

ACCESS_GROUP_REF

Description

Reference to access group in an access control service.

Inherit

OBJECT_REF

Invariant

Type_validity: type.is_equal (“ACCESS_GROUP”)

4.3.16. PARTY_REF Class

Class

PARTY_REF

Description

Identifier for parties in a demographic or identity service. There are typically a number of subtypes of the PARTY class, including PERSON, ORGANISATION, etc. Abstract supertypes are allowed if the referenced object is of a type not known by the current implementation of this class (in other words, if the demographic model is changed by the addition of a new PARTY or ACTOR subtypes, valid PARTY_REFs can still be constructed to them).

Inherit

OBJECT_REF

Invariant

Type_validity: type.is_equal(“PERSON”) or type.is_equal(“ORGANISATION”) or type.is_equal(“GROUP”) or type.is_equal(“AGENT”)or type.is_equal(“ROLE”) or type.is_equal(“PARTY”) or type.is_equal(“ACTOR”)

4.3.17. LOCATABLE_REF Class

Class

LOCATABLE_REF

Description

Purpose Reference to a LOCATABLE instance inside the top-level content structure inside a VERSION<T>; the path attribute is applied to the object that VERSION.data points to.

Inherit

OBJECT_REF

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

0..1

path: String

The path to an instance in question, as an absolute path with respect to the object found at VERSION.data. An empty path means that the object referred to by id being specified.

1..1
(redefined)

id: UID_BASED_ID

The identifier of the Version.

Functions

Signature

Meaning

as_uri: String

A URI form of the reference, created by concatenating the following: ehr:// + id.value + / + path

4.4. Syntaxes

The identifiers defined above are defined in their string form by the following EBNF grammar rules.

(* --------------------------- INTERNET_ID --------------------------- *)
(* According to IETF http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1034[RFC 1034] and  *)
(* http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1035[RFC 1035], as clarified by       *)
(* http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2181[RFC 2181] (section 11),          *)
(* the syntax of a domain name follows the grammar:                    *)

domain      = subdomain | ' ' ;
subdomain   = label | subdomain, '.', label ;
label       = letter [ [ ldh-str ] let-dig ] ;
ldh-str     = let-dig-hyp | let-dig-hyp, ldh-str ;
let-dig-hyp = let-dig | '-' ;
let-dig     = letter | digit ;

(* --------------------------- INTERNET_ID --------------------------- *)
internet_id = root [ '::' extension ] ;
root        = uid ;
extension   = ? any string ? ; (* any string *)

(* ------------------------- OBJECT_VERSION_ID ----------------------- *)
object_version_id  = object_id '::' creating_system_id '::' version_tree_id ;
object_id          = uid ;
creating_system_id = uid ;

(* ------------------------- VERSION_TREE_ID ------------------------- *)
version_tree_id = trunk_version [ '.' branch_number '.' branch_version ] ;
trunk_version   = number ;
branch_number   = number ;
branch_version  = number ;

(* ------------------------- UID, OID, GUID -------------------------- *)
uid     = iso_oid | guid ;
iso_oid = number, { '.', number } ;
guid    = hex-number, '-', hex-number, '-', hex-number, '-', hex-number, '-', hex-number ;

(* -------------------------- ARCHETYPE_ID --------------------------- *)
archetype_id        = qualified_rm_entity '.' domain_concept '.' version_id ;
qualified-rm-entity = rm_originator '-' rm_name '-' rm_entity ;
rm-originator       = alphanum-str ;     (* id of org originating the RM on which this archetype is based *)
rm-name             = alphanum-str ;                      (* id of the RM on which the archetype is based *)
rm-entity           = alphanum-str ;                                       (* ontological level in the RM *)
domain-concept      = concept-name { '-' specialisation } ;
concept-name        = alphanum-str ;
specialisation      = alphanum-str ;
version-id          = 'v', non-zero-digit, [ number ] ;                     (* numeric version identifier *)

(* ------------------------- TERMINOLOGY_ID -------------------------- *)
terminology_id = name-str, [ '(', name-str, ')' ] ;

(* -------------------------- generic rules -------------------------- *)
name-str     = letter, { letter | digit | '_' | '-' | '/' | '+' } ;
alphanum-str = letter, { letter | digit | '_' } ;
letter       = 'a' | .. | 'z' | 'A' | .. | 'Z' ;

number         = digit, { digit } ;
hex-number     = hex-digit, { hex-digit } ;
digit          = '0' | nz_digit ;
non-zero-digit = '1' | .. | '9' ;
hex-digit      = '0' | .. | 'A' | .. | 'F' .. | 'a' | .. | 'f' ;

5. Terminology Package

5.1. Overview

This section describes the terminology package, which contains classes for accessing terminologies and code sets, including the openEHR Support Terminology, from within instances of classes defined in the reference model. The classes shown here would normally be inherited via the classes EXTERNAL_ENVIRONMENT_ACCESS and OPENEHR_DEFINITIONS, although the exact details of how this is done may vary depending on implementation language.

RM support.terminology
Figure 6. rm.support.terminology Package

5.2. Service Interface

5.2.1. Code Sets

A simple terminology service interface is defined according to FIGURE 6, enabling openEHR code sets and terminology to be referenced formally from within the Reference Model. Two types of coded entities are distinguished in openEHR, and are accessible via the service interface. The first is codes from 'code sets', which are the kind of terminology where the code stands for itself, such as the ISO 639-1 language codes. The identifiers themselves of these code sets do not appear to be standardised, but names such as "ISO_639-1" are expected to be used (see below).

In any case, code sets needed within the openEHR models themselves (e.g. for attributes whose value is a language code) are not referred to directly by an external name such as "ISO_639-1", but via an internal constant, in this case, the constant Code_set_id_languages, whose value is defined to be "languages". These constants are defined in the class OPENEHR_CODE_SET_IDENTIFIERS in the UML diagram. The mapping between the internal identifiers and external names should be done in configuration files. The service function TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE.code_set_for_id() is used to retrieve code sets on the basis of a constant. The current mapping and external identifiers assumed in openEHR is defined in the openEHR Support Terminology document. This use of indirection is employed to ensure that the obsoleting and superseding of code-sets does not directly affect openEHR software.

For code sets not mapped to internally used constants, i.e. code sets not required in the openEHR model itself, but otherwise known in the terminology service, the function TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE.code_set() can be used to retrieve these code sets by their external identifier.

5.2.2. Terminologies

Terminologies, including the openEHR Support Terminology are accessed via the TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE functions terminology() and terminology_identifiers(), where the argument includes "openehr", "centc251" (for CEN TC/251codes) and names from the US NLM terminologies list (see below). The openEHR Terminology supports groups, and the set of groups required by the reference model is defined in the class OPENEHR_TERMINOLOGY_GROUP_IDENTIFIERS. These groups correspond to coded attributes found in the openEHR Reference Model.

5.2.3. Terms and Codes in the openEHR Reference Model

True coded attributes in the Reference Model (i.e. attributes of type DV_CODED_TEXT), such as FEEDER_AUDIT.change_type are defined by an invariant in the enclosing class, such as the following:

Change_type_valid: terminology (Terminology_id_openehr).has_code_for_group_id
    (Group_id_audit_change_type, change_type.defining_code)

This is a formal way of saying that the attribute change_type must have a value such that its defining_code (its CODE_PHRASE) is in the set of CODE_PHRASEs in the openEHR Terminology which are in the group whose indentifier is Group_id_audit_change_type.

A similar invariant is used for attributes of type CODE_PHRASE, which come from a code_set. The following invariant appears in the class ENTRY (rm.composition.content.entry package):

Language_valid: media_type /= Void and then code_set (Code_set_languages).has_code (language)

5.3. Identifiers

In openEHR, the identifier of a terminology or code set is found in the terminology_id attribute of the class CODE_PHRASE (Data Types Information Model, text package).

5.3.1. Code Set Identifiers

Internal code set identifiers (such as "languages") used in openEHR are defined in the class OPENEHR_CODE_SET_IDENTIFIERS; assumed external identifiers (such as "ISO_639-1") for code sets used by the openEHR Reference Model are defined in the openEHR Support Terminology document.

5.3.2. Terminology Identifiers

Valid identifiers that can be used for this attribute for terminologies include but are not limited to the following:

  • "openehr"

  • "centc251"

  • an identifier value from the first column of the US National Library or Medicine (NLM) UMLS terminology identifiers table below, in either of two forms:

    • as is, e.g. "ICD10AM_2000", "ICPC93";

    • with any trailing section starting with an underscore removed, e.g. "ICD10AM".

Other identification schemes are used in some standards, such as ISO Oids. These are not specified for direct use in openEHR for various reasons:

  • they are not currently used by the NLM, and no definitive published list of terminology identifiers is available;

  • ISO Oids are long identifiers and may significantly increase the size of persisted information due to the ubiquity of coded terms;

  • determing the identity of the terminology in data always requires a request to a service containing the Oid / name mapping;

  • there is a safety factor in having human readable terminology identifiers in the data.

The use of Oid-based or other terminology identification schemes is not however incompatible with openEHR; all that is required is a terminology identifier / name mapping service or table.

The following table is a snapshot of the US National Library of Medicine UMLS terminology identifiers list. A definitive up-to-date list may be found on the NLM website [NLM_UML_list].

UMLS 2003 Terminology Identifiers

Identifier

Description

AIR93

AI/RHEUM,1993

ALT2000

Alternative Billing Concepts, 2000

AOD2000

Alcohol and Other Drug Thesaurus, 2000

BI98

Beth Israel Vocabulary, 1.0

BRMP2002

Portuguese translation of the Medical Subject Headings, 2002

BRMS2002

Spanish translation of the Medical Subject Headings, 2002

CCPSS99

Canonical Clinical Problem Statement System, 1999

CCS99

Clinical Classifications Software, 1999

CDT4

Current Dental Terminology(CDT), 4

COSTAR_89-95

COSTAR, 1989-1995

CPM93

Medical Entities Dictionary, 1993

CPT01SP

Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology, Spanish Translation, 2001

CPT2003

Physicians' Current Procedural Terminology, 2003

CSP2002

CRISP Thesaurus, 2002

CST95

COSTART, 1995

DDB00

Diseases Database, 2000

DMD2003

German translation of the Medical Subject Headings, 2003

DMDICD10_1995

German translation of ICD10, 1995

DMDUMD_1996

German translation of UMDNS, 1996

DSM3R_1987

DSM-III-R, 1987

DSM4_1994

DSM-IV, 1994

DUT2001

Dutch Translation of the Medical Subject Headings, 2001

DXP94

DXplain, 1994

FIN2003

Finnish translations of the Medical Subject Headings, 2003

HCDT4

HCPCS Version of Current Dental Terminology(CDT), 4

HCPCS03

Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System, 2003

HCPT03

HCPCS Version of Current Procedural Terminology(CPT), 2003

HHC96

Home Health Care Classification, 1996

HL7_1998-2002

Health Level Seven Vocabulary, 1998-2002

HLREL_1998

ICPC2E-ICD10 relationships from Dr. Henk Lamberts, 1998

HPC99

Health Product Comparison System, 1999

ICD10AE_1998

ICD10, American English Equivalents, 1998

ICD10AMAE_2000

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Australian Modification, Americanized English Equivalents, 2000

ICD10AM_2000

International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision, Australian Modification, January 2000 Release

ICD10_1998

ICD10, 1998

ICD9CM_2003

ICD-9-CM, 2003

ICPC2AE_1998

International Classification of Primary Care, Americanized English Equivalents, 2E, 1998

ICPC2E_1998

International Classification of Primary Care 2nd Edition, Electronic, 2E, 1998

ICPC2P_2000

International Classification of Primary Care, Version2-Plus, 2000

ICPC93

International Classification of Primary Care, 1993

ICPCBAQ_1993

ICPC, Basque Translation, 1993

ICPCDAN_1993

ICPC, Danish Translation, 1993

ICPCDUT_1993

ICPC, Dutch Translation, 1993

ICPCFIN_1993

ICPC, Finnish Translation, 1993

ICPCFRE_1993

ICPC, French Translation, 1993

ICPCGER_1993

ICPC, German Translation, 1993

ICPCHEB_1993

ICPC, Hebrew Translation, 1993

ICPCHUN_1993

ICPC, Hungarian Translation, 1993

ICPCITA_1993

ICPC, Italian Translation, 1993

ICPCNOR_1993

ICPC, Norwegian Translation, 1993

ICPCPAE_2000

International Classification of Primary Care ,Version2-Plus, Americanized English Equivalents, 2000

ICPCPOR_1993

ICPC, Portuguese Translation, 1993

ICPCSPA_1993

ICPC, Spanish Translation, 1993

ICPCSWE_1993

ICPC, Swedish Translation, 1993

INS2002

French translation of the Medical Subject Headings, 2002

ITA2003

Italian translation of Medical Subject Headings, 2003

JABL99

Online Congenital Multiple Anomaly/ Mental Retardation Syndromes, 1999

LCH90

Library of Congress Subject Headings, 1990

LNC205

LOINC, 2.05

LOINC

LOINC

MCM92

McMaster University Epidemiology Terms, 1992

MDDB99

MasterDrug DataBase, 1999

MDR51

Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA), 5.1

MDRAE51

Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA), American English Equivalents, 5.1

MDREA51

Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA), American English, with expanded abbreviations, 5.1

MDREX51

Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA), with expanded abbreviations, 5.1

MDRPOR51

Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA), 5.1, Portuguese Edition

MDRSPA51

Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Terminology (MedDRA), 5.1, Spanish Edition

MIM93

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 1993

MMSL01

Multum MediSource Lexicon, 2001

MMX01

Micromedex DRUGDEX, 2001-08

MSH2003_2002_10_24

Medical Subject Headings, 2002_10_24

MTH

UMLS Metathesaurus

MTHCH03

Metathesaurus CPT Hierarchical Terms, 2003

MTHHH03

Metathesaurus HCPCS Hierarchical Terms, 2003

MTHICD9_2003

Metathesaurus additional entry terms for ICD-9-CM, 2003

MTHMST2001

Metathesaurus Version of Minimal Standard Terminology Digestive Endoscopy, 2001

MTHMSTFRE_2001

Metathesaurus Version of Minimal Standard Terminology Digestive Endoscopy, French Translation, 2001

MTHMSTITA_2001

Metathesaurus Version of Minimal Standard Terminology Digestive Endoscopy, Italian Translation, 2001

NAN99

Classification of Nursing Diagnoses, 1999

NCBI2001

NCBI Taxonomy, 2001

NCI2001a

NCI Thesaurus, 2001a

NCISEER_1999

NCISEER ICD Neoplasm Code Mappings, 1999

NDDF01

FirstDataBank National Drug DataFile, 2001-07

NEU99

Neuronames Brain Hierarchy, 1999

NIC99

Nursing Interventions Classification, 1999

NOC97

Nursing Outcomes Classification, 1997

OMIM97

OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man, 1997

OMS94

Omaha System, 1994

PCDS97

Patient Care Data Set, 1997

PDQ2002

Physician Data Query, 2002

PPAC98

Pharmacy Practice Activity Classification , 1998

PSY2001

Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 2001

QMR96

Quick Medical Reference (QMR), 1996

RAM99

QMR clinically related terms from Randolph A. Miller, 1999

RCD99

Clinical Terms Version 3 (CTV3) (Read Codes), 1999

RCDAE_1999

Read thesaurus, American English Equivalents, 1999

RCDSA_1999

Read thesaurus Americanized Synthesized Terms, 1999

RCDSY_1999

Read thesaurus, Synthesized Terms, 1999

RUS2003

Russian Translation of MeSH, 2003

RXNORM_03AA

RXNORM Project, META2003AA

SNM2

SNOMED-2, 2

SNMI98

SNOMED International, 1998

SNOMED-CT

SNOMED International Clinical Terms, 2002

SPN02

Standard Product Nomenclature, 2002

SRC

Metathesaurus Source Terminology Names

ULT93

UltraSTAR, 1993

UMD2003

UMDNS: product category thesaurus, 2003

UMLS

UMLS: National Library of Medicine, USA

UWDA155

University of Washington Digital Anatomist, 1.5.5

VANDF01

Veterans Health Administration National Drug File, 2001

WHO97

WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology, 1997

WHOFRE_1997

WHOART, French Translation, 1997

WHOGER_1997

WHOART, German Translation, 1997

WHOPOR_1997

WHOART, Portuguese Translation, 1997

WHOSPA_1997

WHOART, Spanish Translation, 1997

5.4. Class Definitions

5.4.1. TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE Class

Class

TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE

Description

Defines an object providing proxy access to a terminology service.

Inherit

OPENEHR_TERMINOLOGY_GROUP_IDENTIFIERS, OPENEHR_CODE_SET_IDENTIFIERS

Functions

Signature

Meaning

terminology (name: String): TERMINOLOGY_ACCESS

Return an interface to the terminology named name. Allowable names include:- * openehr, * centc251, * any name from are taken from the US NLM UMLS meta-data list at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html

code_set (name: String): CODE_SET_ACCESS
Pre: has_code_set (name)

Return an interface to the code_set identified by the external identifier name (e.g. ISO_639-1).

code_set_for_id (id: String): CODE_SET_ACCESS
Pre: valid_code_set_id (id)

Return an interface to the code_set identified internally in openEHR by id.

has_terminology (name: String): Boolean

True if terminology named name known by this service. Allowable names include:- * openehr * centc251 * any name from are taken from the US NLM UMLS meta-data list at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html

has_code_set (name: String): Boolean

True if code_set linked to internal name (e.g. languages ) is available.

terminology_identifiers: List<String>

Set of all terminology identifiers known in the terminology service. Values from the US NLM UMLS meta-data list at:- http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html

openehr_code_sets: Hash<String, String>

Set of all code set identifiers known in the terminology service.

code_set_identifiers: List<String>

Set of all code sets identifiers for which there is an internal openEHR name; returned as a Map of ids keyed by internal name.

5.4.2. TERMINOLOGY_ACCESS Interface

Interface

TERMINOLOGY_ACCESS

Description

Defines an object providing proxy access to a terminology.

Functions

Signature

Meaning

id: String

Identification of this Terminology.

all_codes: CODE_PHRASE

Return all codes known in this terminology.

codes_for_group_id (a_group_id: String): List<CODE_PHRASE>

Return all codes under grouper 'a_group_id' from this terminology.

codes_for_group_name (a_lang: String, a_name: String): List<CODE_PHRASE>

Return all codes under grouper whose name in 'a_lang' is 'a_name' from this terminology.

has_code_for_group_id: Boolean

True if a_code' is known in group group_id' in the openEHR terminology.

rubric_for_code (a_code: String): String

Return all rubric of code code' in language lang'.

5.4.3. CODE_SET_ACCESS Interface

Interface

CODE_SET_ACCESS

Description

Defines an object providing proxy access to a code_set.

Functions

Signature

Meaning

id: String

External identifier of this code set.

all_codes: List<CODE_PHRASE>

Return all codes known in this code set.

has_lang (a_lang: String): Boolean

True if code set knows about 'a_lang' .

has_code (a_code: String): Boolean

True if code set knows about 'a_code'.

5.4.4. OPENEHR_TERMINOLOGY_GROUP_IDENTIFIERS Class

Class

OPENEHR_TERMINOLOGY_GROUP_IDENTIFIERS

Description

List of identifiers for groups in the openEHR terminology.

Constants

Signature

Meaning

1..1

Terminology_id_openehr: String = "openehr"

Name of openEHR’s own terminology.

1..1

Group_id_audit_change_type: String = "audit change type"

1..1

Group_id_attestation_reason: String = "attestation reason"

1..1

Group_id_composition_category: String = "composition category"

1..1

Group_id_event_math_function: String = "event math function"

1..1

Group_id_instruction_states: String = "instruction states"

1..1

Group_id_instruction_transitions: String = "instruction transitions"

1..1

Group_id_null_flavours: String = "null flavours"

1..1

Group_id_property: String = "property"

1..1

Group_id_participation_function: String = "participation function"

1..1

Group_id_participation_mode: String = "participation mode"

1..1

Group_id_setting: String = "setting"

1..1

Group_id_term_mapping_purpose: String = "term mapping purpose"

1..1

Group_id_subject_relationship: String = "subject relationship"

1..1

Group_id_version_life_cycle_state: String = "version lifecycle state"

Functions

Signature

Meaning

valid_terminology_group_id (an_id: Boolean): Boolean

Validity function to test if an identifier is in the set defined by this class.

5.4.5. OPENEHR_CODE_SET_IDENTIFIERS Class

Class

OPENEHR_CODE_SET_IDENTIFIERS

Description

List of identifiers for code sets in the openEHR terminology.

Constants

Signature

Meaning

1..1

Code_set_id_character_sets: String = "character sets"

1..1

Code_set_id_compression_algorithms: String = "compression algorithms"

1..1

Code_set_id_countries: String = "countries"

1..1

Code_set_integrity_check_algorithms: String = "integrity check algorithms"

1..1

Code_set_id_languages: String = "languages"

1..1

Code_set_id_media_types: String = "media types"

1..1

Code_set_id_normal_statuses: String = "normal statuses"

Functions

Signature

Meaning

valid_code_set_id (an_id: String): Boolean

Validity function to test if an identifier is in the set defined by this class.

6. Measurement Package

6.1. Overview

The Measurement package defines a minimum of semantics relating to quantitative measurement, units, and conversion, enabling the Quantity package of the openEHR Data Types Information Model to be correctly expressed. As for the Terminology package, a simple service interface is assumed, which provides useful functions to other parts of the reference model. The definitions underlying measurement and units come from a variety of sources, including:

  • CEN ENV 12435, Medical Informatics - Expression of results of measurements in health sciences (see http://www.centc251.org);

  • the Unified Code for Units of Measure (UCUM), developed by Gunther Schadow and Clement J. McDonald of The Regenstrief Institute (available in HL7v3 ballot materials; http://www.hl7.org).

These of course rest in turn upon a vast amount of literature and standards, mainly from ISO on the subject of scientific measurement.

6.2. Service Interface

A simple measurement data service interface is defined according to the figure below, enabling quantitative semantics to be used formally from within the Reference Model. Note that this service as currently defined in no way seeks to properly model the semantics of units, conversions etc - it provides only the minimum functions required by the openEHR Reference Model.

RM support.measurement
Figure 7. rm.support.measurement Package

6.3. Class Definitions

6.3.1. TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE Class

Class

TERMINOLOGY_SERVICE

Description

Defines an object providing proxy access to a terminology service.

Inherit

OPENEHR_TERMINOLOGY_GROUP_IDENTIFIERS, OPENEHR_CODE_SET_IDENTIFIERS

Functions

Signature

Meaning

terminology (name: String): TERMINOLOGY_ACCESS

Return an interface to the terminology named name. Allowable names include:- * openehr, * centc251, * any name from are taken from the US NLM UMLS meta-data list at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html

code_set (name: String): CODE_SET_ACCESS
Pre: has_code_set (name)

Return an interface to the code_set identified by the external identifier name (e.g. ISO_639-1).

code_set_for_id (id: String): CODE_SET_ACCESS
Pre: valid_code_set_id (id)

Return an interface to the code_set identified internally in openEHR by id.

has_terminology (name: String): Boolean

True if terminology named name known by this service. Allowable names include:- * openehr * centc251 * any name from are taken from the US NLM UMLS meta-data list at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html

has_code_set (name: String): Boolean

True if code_set linked to internal name (e.g. languages ) is available.

terminology_identifiers: List<String>

Set of all terminology identifiers known in the terminology service. Values from the US NLM UMLS meta-data list at:- http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html

openehr_code_sets: Hash<String, String>

Set of all code set identifiers known in the terminology service.

code_set_identifiers: List<String>

Set of all code sets identifiers for which there is an internal openEHR name; returned as a Map of ids keyed by internal name.

7. Definition Package

7.1. Overview

The definition package defines symbolic definitions used by the openEHR models. Only a small number are currently defined.

7.2. Class Definitions

7.2.1. OPENEHR_DEFINITIONS Class

Class

OPENEHR_DEFINITIONS

Description

Inheritance class to provide access to constants defined in other packages.

Inherit

BASIC_DEFINITIONS

7.2.2. BASIC_DEFINITIONS Class

Class

BASIC_DEFINITIONS

Description

Defines globally used constant values.

Attributes

Signature

Meaning

1..1

CR: char = '\015'

Carriage return character.

1..1

LF: char = '\012'

Line feed character.

References

Publications

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  3. [Beale_2000] Beale T. Archetypes: Constraint-based Domain Models for Future-proof Information Systems. 2000. Available at http://www.openehr.org/files/resources/publications/archetypes/archetypes_beale_web_2000.pdf .

  4. [Beale_2002] Beale T. Archetypes: Constraint-based Domain Models for Future-proof Information Systems. Eleventh OOPSLA Workshop on Behavioral Semantics: Serving the Customer (Seattle, Washington, USA, November 4, 2002). Edited by Kenneth Baclawski and Haim Kilov. Northeastern University, Boston, 2002, pp. 16-32. Available at http://www.openehr.org/files/resources/publications/archetypes/archetypes_beale_oopsla_2002.pdf .

  5. [Beale_Heard_2007] Beale T, Heard S. An Ontology-based Model of Clinical Information. 2007. pp760-764 Proceedings MedInfo 2007, K. Kuhn et al. (Eds), IOS Publishing 2007. See http://www.openehr.org/publications/health_ict/MedInfo2007-BealeHeard.pdf.

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  7. [Browne_2005] Browne E D. Workflow Modelling of Coordinated Inter-Health-Provider Care Plans. 2005. PhD dissertation, University of South Australia. Available at http://www.openehr.org/publications/workflow/t_browne_thesis_abstract.htm.

  8. [Cimino_1997] Cimino J J. Desiderata for Controlled Medical vocabularies in the Twenty-First Century. IMIA WG6 Conference, Jacksonville, Florida, Jan 19-22, 1997.

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  12. [Fowler_1997] Fowler M. Analysis Patterns: Reusable Object Models. Addison Wesley 1997

  13. [Fowler_Scott_2000] Fowler M, Scott K. UML Distilled (2nd Ed.). Addison Wesley Longman 2000.

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  15. [Hein_2002] Hein J L. Discrete Structures, Logic and Computability (2nd Ed). Jones and Bartlett 2002.

  16. [Hnìtynka_2004] Hnìtynka P, Plášil F. Distributed Versioning Model for MOF. Proceedings of WISICT 2004, Cancun, Mexico, A volume in the ACM international conference proceedings series, published by Computer Science Press, Trinity College Dublin Ireland, 2004.

  17. [Ingram_1995] Ingram D. The Good European Health Record Project. Laires, Laderia Christensen, Eds. Health in the New Communications Age. Amsterdam: IOS Press; 1995; pp. 66-74.

  18. [Kifer_Lausen_Wu_1995] Kifer M, Lausen G, Wu J. Logical Foundations of Object-Oriented and FrameBased Languages. JACM May 1995. See See ftp://ftp.cs.sunysb.edu/pub/TechReports/kifer/flogic.pdf.

  19. [Kilov_1994] Kilov H, Ross J. Information Modelling - an object-oriented approach. Prentice Hall 1994.

  20. [Maier_2000] Maier M. Architecting Principles for Systems-of-Systems. Technical Report, University of Alabama in Huntsville. 2000. Available at http://www.infoed.com/Open/PAPERS/systems.htm

  21. [Martin] Martin P. Translations between UML, OWL, KIF and the WebKB-2 languages (For-Taxonomy, Frame-CG, Formalized English). May/June 2003. Available at http://www.webkb.org/doc/model/comparisons.html as at Aug 2004.

  22. [Meyer_OOSC2] Meyer B. Object-oriented Software Construction, 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall 1997

  23. [Müller_2003] Müller R. Event-oriented Dnamic Adaptation of Workflows: Model, Architecture, and Implementation. 2003. PhD dissertation, University of Leipzig. Available at http://www.openehr.org/publications/workflow/t_mueller_thesis_abstract.htm.

  24. [Object_Z] Smith G. The Object Z Specification Language. Kluwer Academic Publishers 2000. See http://www.itee.uq.edu.au/~smith/objectz.html .

  25. [Rector_1994] Rector A L, Nowlan W A, Kay S. Foundations for an Electronic Medical Record. The IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics 1992 (Eds. van Bemmel J, McRay A). Stuttgart Schattauer 1994.

  26. [Rector] Rector A L. Clinical terminology: why is it so hard? Methods Inf Med. 1999 Dec;38(4-5):239-52. Available at http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~rector/papers/Why-is-terminology-hard-single-r2.pdf .

  27. [Richards_1998] Richards E G. Mapping Time - The Calendar and its History. Oxford University Press 1998.

  28. [Sowa_2000] Sowa J F. Knowledge Representation: Logical, philosophical and Computational Foundations. 2000, Brooks/Cole, California.

  29. [Sottile_1999] Sottile P.A., Ferrara F.M., Grimson W., Kalra D., and Scherrer J.R. The holistic healthcare information system. Toward an Electronic Health Record Europe. 1999. Nov 1999; 259-266.

  30. [Van_de_Velde_Degoulet_2003] Van de Velde R, Degoulet P. Clinical Information Systems: A Component-Based Approach. 2003. Springer-Verlag New York.

  31. [Weed_1969] Weed LL. Medical records, medical education and patient care. 6 ed. Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers Inc. 1969.

Resources

Ontology

  1. [bfo] Institute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS). Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). http://ifomis.uni-saarland.de/bfo/ .

  2. [FMA] http://sig.biostr.washington.edu/projects/fm/ .

  3. [Horrocks_owl] Patel-Schneider P, Horrocks I, Hayes P. OWL Web Ontology Language Semantics and Abstract Syntax. See http://w3c.org/TR/owl-semantics/ .

  4. [IAO] Information Artefact Ontology. https://code.google.com/p/information-artifact-ontology/ .

  5. [OBO] The Open Biological and Biomedical Ontologies. See http://www.obofoundry.org/ .

  6. [OGMS] Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS). https://code.google.com/p/ogms/ .

General

  1. [cov_contra] Wikipedia. Covariance and contravariance. See https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Covariance_and_contravariance_(computer_science) .

e-Health Standards

  1. [ENV_13606-1] ENV 13606-1 - Electronic healthcare record communication - Part 1: Extended architecture. CEN/ TC 251 Health Informatics Technical Committee.

  2. [ENV_13606-2] ENV 13606-2 - Electronic healthcare record communication - Part 2: Domain term list. CEN/TC 251 Health Informatics Technical Committee.

  3. [ENV_13606-3] ENV 13606-3 - Electronic healthcare record communication - Part 3: Distribution rules. CEN/TC 251 Health Informatics Technical Committee.

  4. [ENV_13606-4] ENV 13606-4 - Electronic Healthcare Record Communication standard Part 4: Messages for the exchange of information. CEN/ TC 251 Health Informatics Technical Committee.

  5. [Corbamed_PIDS] Object Management Group. Person Identification Service. March 1999.

  6. [Corbamed_LQS] Object Management Group. Lexicon Query Service. March 1999.

  7. [HL7v3_ballot2] JL7 International. HL7 version 3 2nd Ballot specification. Available at http://www.hl7.org.

  8. [HL7v3_data_types] Schadow G, Biron P. HL7 version 3 deliverable: Version 3 Data Types. (2nd ballot 2002 version).

  9. [hl7_v3_rim] HL7. HL7 v3 RIM. See http://www.hl7.org .

  10. [ICD10AM]. WHO / ACCD. International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Australian Modifications. See https://www.accd.net.au/Icd10.aspx

  11. [IHTSDO] International Health Terminology Standards Development Organisation (IHTSDO). http://www.ihtsdo.org.

  12. [IHTSDO_URIs] IHTSDO. SNOMED CT URI Standard. http://ihtsdo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/doc/download/doc_UriStandard_Current-en-US_INT_20140527.pdf?ok.

  13. [NLM_UML_list] National Library of Medicine. UMLS Terminologies List. http://www.nlm.nih.gov/research/umls/metaa1.html.

  14. [SNOMED_CT] IHTSDO. Sytematised Nomenclature for Medicine. See http://www.ohtsdo.org.

  15. [WHO_ICD] World Health Organisation (WHO). International Classification of Diseases (ICD). See: http://www.who.int/classifications/icd/en/ .

  16. [ISO_18308] Schloeffel P. (Editor). Requirements for an Electronic Health Record Reference Architecture. (ISO TC 215/SC N; ISO/WD 18308). International Standards Organisation, Australia, 2002.

  17. [ISO_20514] ISO. The Integrated Care EHR. See http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=39525 .

  18. [UCUM] Schadow G, McDonald C J. The Unified Code for Units of Measure, Version 1.4 2000. Regenstrief Institute for Health Care, Indianapolis. See http://aurora.rg.iupui.edu/UCUM

e-Health Projects

  1. [CIMI] Clinical Information Modelling Initiative (CIMI) Project. See http://opencimi.org.

  2. [EHCR_supA_14] Dixon R, Grubb P A, Lloyd D, and Kalra D. Consolidated List of Requirements. EHCR Support Action Deliverable 1.4. European Commission DGXIII, Brussels; May 2001 59pp Available from http://www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/HealthI/EHCR-SupA/del1-4v1_3.PDF.

  3. [EHCR_supA_35] Dixon R, Grubb P, Lloyd D. EHCR Support Action Deliverable 3.5: "Final Recommendations to CEN for future work". Oct 2000. Available at http://www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/HealthI/EHCRSupA/documents.htm.

  4. [EHCR_supA_24] Dixon R, Grubb P, Lloyd D. EHCR Support Action Deliverable 2.4 "Guidelines on Interpretation and implementation of CEN EHCRA". Oct 2000. Available at http://www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/HealthI/EHCR-SupA/documents.htm.

  5. [ Lloyd D, et al. EHCR Support Action Deliverable 3.1&3.2 “Interim Report to CEN”. July 1998. Available at http://www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/HealthI/EHCR-SupA/documents.htm.

  6. [GEHR_del_4] Deliverable 4: GEHR Requirements for Clinical Comprehensiveness. GEHR Project 1992

  7. [GEHR_del_7] Deliverable 7: Clinical Functional Specifications. GEHR Project 1993

  8. [GEHR_del_8] Deliverable 8: Ethical and legal Requirements of GEHR Architecture and Systems. GEHR Project 1994

  9. [GEHR_del_19_20_24] Deliverable 19,20,24: GEHR Architecture. GEHR Project 30/6/1995

  10. [GeHR_AUS] Heard S, Beale T. The Good Electronic Health Record (GeHR) (Australia). See http://www.openehr.org/resources/related_projects#gehraus .

  11. [GeHR_Aus_gpcg] Heard S. GEHR Project Australia, GPCG Trial. Available at http://www.gehr.org/gpcg/ehra.htm.

  12. [GeHR_Aus_req] Beale T, Heard S. GEHR Technical Requirements. See http://www.gehr.org/technical/requirements/gehr_requirements.html.

  13. [Synapses_req_A] Kalra D. (Editor). The Synapses User Requirements and Functional Specification (Part A). EU Telematics Application Programme, Brussels; 1996; The Synapses Project: Deliverable USER 1.1.1a. 6 chapters, 176 pages.

  14. [Synapses_req_B] Grimson W. and Groth T. (Editors). The Synapses User Requirements and Functional Specification (Part B). EU Telematics Application Programme, Brussels; 1996; The Synapses Project: Deliverable USER 1.1.1b.

  15. [Synapses_odp] Kalra D. (Editor). Synapses ODP Information Viewpoint. EU Telematics Application Programme, Brussels; 1998; The Synapses Project: Final Deliverable. 10 chapters, 64 pages.

  16. [synex] University College London. SynEx project. http://www.chime.ucl.ac.uk/HealthI/SynEx/ .

General Standards

  1. [OCL] The Object Constraint Language 2.0. Object Management Group (OMG). Available at http://www.omg.org/cgi-bin/doc?ptc/2003-10-14 .

  2. [IANA] IANA. http://www.iana.org/.

  3. [IEEE_828] IEEE. IEEE 828-2005: standard for Software Configuration Management Plans.

  4. [ISO_8601] ISO 8601 standard describing formats for representing times, dates, and durations. See e.g. http://www.mcs.vuw.ac.nz/technical/software/SGML/doc/iso8601/ISO8601.html and http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~mgk25/iso-time.html.

  5. [ISO_2788] ISO. ISO 2788 Guide to Establishment and development of monolingual thesauri.

  6. [ISO_5964] ISO. ISO 5964 Guide to Establishment and development of multilingual thesauri.

  7. [Perl_regex] Perl.org. Perl Regular Expressions. Available at http://perldoc.perl.org/perlre.html .

  8. [Protege] Stanford University. See http://protege.stanford.edu/ .

  9. [rfc_2396] Berners-Lee T. Universal Resource Identifiers in WWW. Available at http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt. This is a World-Wide Web RFC for global identification of resources. In current use on the web, e.g. by Mosaic, Netscape and similar tools. See http://www.w3.org/Addressing for a starting point on URIs.

  10. [rfc_2440] RFC 2440: OpenPGP Message Format. See http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2440.txt and http://www.ietf.org/internet-drafts/draft-ietf-openpgp-rfc2440bis-18.txt

  11. [rfc_3986] RFC 3986: Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax. IETF. See http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt .

  12. [rfc_4122] RFC 4122: A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace. IETF. See http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc4122.txt .

  13. [rfc_2781] IETF. RFC 2781: UTF-16, an encoding of ISO 10646 See http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2781.

  14. [rfc_5646] IETF. RFC 5646. Available at http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc5646.

  15. [sem_ver] Semantic Versioning. http://semver.org .

  16. [Xpath] W3C Xpath 1.0 specification. 1999. Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/xpath.

  17. [uri_syntax] Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax, Internet proposed standard. January 2005. see http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3986.txt .

  18. [w3c_owl] W3C. OWL - the Web Ontology Language. See http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/CR-owl-ref-20030818/ .

  19. [w3c_xpath] W3C. XML Path Language. See http://w3c.org/TR/xpath .

Tools

  1. [Template_Designer] Template Designer. Ocean Informatics. http://www.openehr.org/downloads/modellingtools.

openEHR Resources

  1. [openehr_18308] The openEHR Foundation. Conformance of openEHR architecture to ISO TS 18308, "Requirements for EHR Architectures". See http://www.openehr.org/releases/trunk/architecture/iso18308_conformance.pdf.

  2. [openEHR_ADL_workbench] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR ADL Workbench. http://www.openehr.org/downloads/ADLworkbench/home .

  3. [openehr_am_overview] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR Archetypes Technical Overview. See http://www.openehr.org/releases/AM/latest/Overview.html.

  4. [openehr_am_adl14] The openEHR Foundation. Archetype Definition Language 1.4 (ADL1.4). Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/AM/latest/ADL1.4.html.

  5. [openehr_am_aom14] The openEHR Foundation. Archetype Object Model 1.4 (AOM1.4). Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/AM/latest/AOM1.4.html.

  6. [openehr_am_adl2] The openEHR Foundation. Archetype Definition Language 2 (ADL2). Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/AM/latest/ADL2.html.

  7. [openehr_am_aom2] The openEHR Foundation. Archetype Object Model 2 (AOM2). Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/AM/latest/AOM2.html.

  8. [openehr_am_identification] The openEHR Foundation. Archetype Identification specification. Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/AM/latest/Identification.html.

  9. [openehr_am_def_pri] The openEHR Foundation. Archetype Definitions and Principles. (deprecated) Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/1.0.2/architecture/am/archetype_principles.pdf.

  10. [openehr_am_sys] The openEHR Foundation. The Archetype System. (deprecated) Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/1.0.2/architecture/am/archetype_system.pdf.

  11. [openehr_am_oap] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR Archetype Profile. http://www.openehr.org/releases/1.0.2/architecture/am/openehr_archetype_profile.pdf .

  12. [openehr_CKM] The openEHR Clinical Knowledge Manager (CKM). See http://www.openEHR.org/ckm

  13. [openehr_odin] The openEHR Foundation. Object Data Instance Notation (ODIN). Available at http://www.openehr.org/releases/BASE/latest/odin.html.

  14. [openehr_overview] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR Architecture Overview. See http://www.openehr.org/releases/BASE/latest/architecture_overview.html.

  15. [openehr_query_aql] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR Archetype Query language (AQL). See http://www.openehr.org/releases/QUERY/latest/AQL.html.

  16. [openehr_rm_data_types] openEHR. Data Types Information Model. See http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/data_types.html.

  17. [openehr_rm_data_structures] openEHR. Data Structures Information Model. See http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/data_structures.html.

  18. [openehr_rm_common] openEHR. Common Information Model. See http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/common.html.

  19. [openehr_rm_ehr] The openEHR Foundation. The EHR Information Model. http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/ehr.html.

  20. [openehr_rm_ehr_extract] The openEHR Foundation. The EHR Extrct Information Model. http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/ehr_extract.html.

  21. [openehr_rm_integration] The openEHR Foundation. The Integration Information Model. http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/integration.html.

  22. [openehr_rm_support] openEHR. Support Information Model. See http://www.openehr.org/releases/RM/Release-1.0.3/support.html.

  23. [openehr_terminology] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR Terminology http://www.openehr.org/releases/TERM/latest/SupportTerminology.html.

  24. [openehr_terminology_resources] The openEHR Foundation. The openEHR Terminology project (GitHub) https://github.com/openEHR/terminology.